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Analysis of the Hadith about “Qur’an and Sunnah”

December 31, 2016 Leave a comment

Bismillah

All praises due to Allah and May his peace and blessing be upon the Last and Final Messenger Muhammad, his family and companions.

Imam Malik records in his well-known Mu’atta, hence he sai under the Book of destiny that it has reached him the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “I am leaving among you two commandments, by adhering to them you will never be deviated; that is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet.”

This narration has been narrated through several chains, from atleast four of the companions. However, all of them have some defects in them.
Recorded in “Mu’atta Imam Malik” without any sanad [Imam Malik said: it has reached us that Prophet [SAW] said…]. However, Imam Ibn Abdul Barr narrates it with his sanad in his Sharh of Mu’atta through two companions; Abu Hurairah and ‘Amr bin Awf, and he declare it to be preserve and famous among scholars. [At-Tamheed (24/331)]

This narration has been narrated through Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Amr bin Awf, Abu Hurairah and Anas bin Malik.

Ibn ‘Abbas: – Narrated through Ibn Abbas by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in “Sunan Al-Kubra” (10/114) and in “Dalaa’il An-Nubuwwah” (5/549), Al-Hakim in “Al-Mustadrak” (318), Al-‘Uqaili in “Du’afa” (2/250) and Abu Bakr Al-Aajuri in “Ash-Sharee’ah” (5/2220). All of them narrate it through the route of Isma’eel bin Abi Uwais from his father from Thawr bin Zaid Ad-Dailee from Ikrimah from Ibn Abbas. This narration describe the speech of the Prophet (SAW) during his farewell pilgrimage.
Abdullah bin Abdullah bin Abi ‘Aamir Abu Uwais Al-Madani, the father of Isma’eel bin Abi Uwais, was close to weakness. Yahya and Ahmed said he was weak in hadith. Another time Yahya bin Mu’een said, there is no problem with him. In another narration, he said: Sadooq, but not Hujjah. Nasai and Ibn Madeeni also considered him weak. Abu Dawud said: Saleh Al-Hadith. Muslim relied on Abu Uwais in his Sahih. [Meezan Al-E’etidal (2/450)]
Isma’eel bin Abi Uwais was a disputed narrator. The correct ruling on him is that he was truthful but made mistakes while narrating from his memory. Bukhari and Muslim narrated from him in their Sahih. [Refer to al-Kashif (1/247), Taqreeb (1/96), Meezan (1/222-223) etc]
In the report of Al-Aajurri, al-‘Uqaili and al-Marwazi the father of Ibn Abi Uwais narrates from Abdullah bin Abi Abdullah Al-Basari also along with Thawr bin Zaid Ad-Dailee.

Al-Albani declared the sanad in Mustadrak Al-Hakim from Ibn ‘Abbas to be hasan [“At-Tawassul” (pg.16)], and declared the hadith to be Sahih in “Sahih Al-Jami’” (3232). Al-Hakim said, “The command to stick with Sunnah is Ghareeb (odd) in this speech (farewell speech).” The comment of Imam Hakim is true when we look at the authentic tradition of Ibn ‘Abbas recorded by al-Bukhari in his “Sahih” (1739) Ahmad in Musnad (2036) and others through Fudail b. Ghazwan from ‘Ikrimah from Ibn ‘Abbas. Basically, the version reported by al-Hakim is a manipulated version of famous narration recorded in Sahih and Musnad. And Allah knows best.

‘Amr bin ‘Awf: – Narrated by Ibn Abdul Barr in “At-Tamheed” (24/331) and in “Jami’ Bayan Al-‘Ilm” (1/755, 2/979) through the way of Katheer bin Abdullah from his father from his grand-father…
Katheer bin Abdullah was weak. Taqreeb (2/39)

Abu Hurairah: – Through Abu Hurayrah by al-Daarqutni in “Sunan” (4606), al-Bazzaar in his Musnad (8993), Al-Hakim in “Al-Mustadrak” (1/172), Imam Al-Bayhaqi in “al-Kubra” (20337), Ibn Abdul Barr in “At-Tamheed” (24/331) through the route Salih bin Musa At-Talhi from Abdul Aziz bin Rufai’ from Abu Saleh from Abu Hurairah.
Regarding Saleh bin Musa, Ibn Hajar said: He was matrook.

Anas bin Malik: – Abu Ash-Shaykh Al-Asbahani narrates as a hadith of Anas bin Malik in his “Tabaqat al-Muhadditheen” (4/67).
In this, Yazeed bin Abaan Ar-Raqqashi narrates from Anas. Yazeed was weak in hadith, as said by Ibn Ma’een, Ahmed, Ibn Sa’d, Daarqutni etc. [Tahdheeb (11/270)]

This has also been narrated through ‘Urwah and Musa bin ‘Uqbah in Mursal form.

‘Urwah bin Zubair: – This was reported by Al-Bayhaqi in “Ad-Dala’il” (5/447-448) from Urwah bin Zubair from Prophet (SAW) as a Mursal tradition. The isnad contains Ibn Lahee’ah who was weak in hadeeth.

Musa bin ‘Uqbah: – Al-Bayhaqi reports it as a Mursal report of Musa bin ‘Uqbah (d.141 AH) in the same book (5/448).

 

 

Against Hadith al-Thaqalain

Some people, especially shi’ites, always represent Hadith al-Thaqalain as an evidence against this narration. According to them, the Hadith of “Quran and Sunnah” was forged to diminish the importance of hadith al-Thaqalain. To them, since the latter is reported with so many routes therefore the former must be a fabrication. However there is no real contradiction between them.

 

No real Contradiction

The importance of Sunnah is evident from numerous Qur’anic verses and prophetic traditions. For example, it is mentioned in the Quran:

“O you who have believed! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything then refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.” [4:59]

“He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah” [4:80]

The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever obeys me will enter paradise, and whoever disobeys me has denied.” Sahih Bukhari (7280)

Hudhaifa b. Yaman narrates that the Messenger of Allah (sallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “…so read from the Qur’an and understand the Sunnah.” [Sahih Bukhari (6497, 7276), Sahih Muslim (230), Tirmidhi (2179)]

These are only few evidence to prove the validity of Sunnah as a source of Islam. So it is beyond understanding as to why some of the Rawafid dislike when the hadith of Qur’an and Sunnah is used to show the importance of Sunnah. No Sunni scholar uses this hadith to discard the authenticity of the hadith of Thaqalain rather they consider both to be different statements of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

The common thing about both hadith Thaqalain and that of “Quran and Sunnah” is that they both speak of adhering to Qur’an. The difference in them is that the former speak of the status of Ahlul Bayt while the latter command to adhere the Sunnah. The is the basic difference which Shiites today fail to understand that hadith Thaqalain does not represent Ahlul Bayt as a source to be followed in absolute sense. To read further on this see this article.

 

Concluding remark

It can be seen from above discussion that this narration has considerable defects with all of its routes. So, to many scholars the narration remains weak as a whole as these different routes do not strengthen each other because of fact that they arise from different sources, while for others it would be Hasan (which is a level just near weak) as the text has been reported through different routes and the text speaks of something which every Muslim agree on. Allah knows best.

Hadeeth Thaqalain: A systematic takhreej of its different wordings

January 23, 2012 3 comments

A systematic Takhreej of Hadith Thaqalain

By

Muhammad Moin

 

In the name of Allah.

And may his peace and blessings be upon his final Messenger.

This hadith has been narrated from several Sahabah, viz. Ali, Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Abu Dharr, Zaid bin Thabit, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Jabir, Hudhaifa bin Usaid, Khuzaimah bin Thabit, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, Zaid bin Arqam, Sahl bin Sa’d, Dhumairah, ‘Aamir bin Lailah, ‘Adi bin Hatim, ‘Uqbah bin ‘Aamir, Abu Rafe’, Abu Shuraih al-Khuza’i, Abu Qudamah al-Ansari, Abu Hurairah, Abul Haitham bin at-Tayyahan, Umm Salamah, Umm Hani and a person from Qureish. However, most of these traditions are not established. [See the detail of these traditions in “Istijlab Irtaqa’ al-Ghuraf” (1/336-364) by Hafiz As-Sakhawi]

My intention is to analyze the authenticity of different wordings of this tradition.

[1] “I am leaving behind things [or two weighty things], the first of which is the book of Allah. In it is guidance and light. So stick to it.” So he urged us to [stick with] the book of Allah and aspired people of it. Then he said, “And my Ahlul Bayt. I remind you of Allah with regards to m Ahlul Bayt [He repeated this three times]”

This wording is established from the hadith of Yazeed bin Hayyan from Zaid bin Arqam related by Muslim (6304), Ahmad (19265), Nasai in “al-Kubra” (8119), Ibn Khuzaimah (2357) and others.

This wording is also established in the narration of Atiyyah from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri. Ya’qoob al-Fasawi relates in “al-Ma’rifah wa at-Tareekh” (1/537) through Fudhail bin Marzooq from Atiyyah al-‘Awfi from Abu Sa’eed with the wording similar to that of Sahih Muslim. At the end Fudhail asked Atiyyah, “Who were the Itrah of Prophet (S.A.W.)?” He replied, “His Ahlul Bayt”.

حدثنا عبيد الله قال: أنبأ فضيل بن مرزوق عن عطية عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إني تارك فيكم الثقلين أحدهما أكبر من الآخر: كتاب الله عز وجل حبل ممدود من السماء إلى الأرض طرف في يد الله عز وجل وطرف في أيديكم فاستمسكوا به، ألا وعترتي. قال فضيل: سألت عطية عن عترته؟ قال: أهل بيته

There are other wordings also narrated from ‘Atiyyah, and that may be due to weakness in ‘Atiyyah or it may be that some narrators while trying to narrate it through meaning, have changed the sequence of the words unintentionally. WAllahu A’alam

Likewise, this has come under the hadith of Zaid bin Hasan al-Anmati from Ma’roof bin Kharraboodh from Abu Tufayl from Hudhaifa bin Usaid. It was reported by Tabarani in “Al-Kabeer” (3/67 & 3/180) and Abu Nu’aim in “al-Hilyah” (1/355), and its Isnad is weak due to Zaid al-Anmaati, as we’ll see later.

This wording has also been related by Tabarani in “Al-Kabeer” (3/66 & 5/166) through the way of Abdullah bin Bukair Al-Ghanawi from Hakeem bin Jubair from Abu Tufayl from Zaid bin Arqam. Hakeem bin Jubair was extremely weak. [Meezan (1/583)]

 

[2] “I am leaving behind things, which if you adhere to you shall never go astray. And that is the Book of Allah and my Ahlul Bayt [or my Itrah].”

This is disputed upon. This relation is famous from the hadith of Jabir, related by Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (3786), Tabarani in “Al-Kabeer” (2680) and “Al-Awsat” (4757) through the way of Zaid bin Al-Hasan Al-Anmati from Ja’far bin Muhammad from his father (Al-Baqir) from Jabir bin Abdullah. This tradition also mentions that the Prophet (SAW) said it during his farewell pilgrimage. This tradition is obviously Munkar for the following reasons:

  1. Zaid bin al-Hasan al-Anmaati was weak as stated by Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb (1/337). Abu Hatim said that he was Munkar al-Hadeeth.
  2. The hadeeth of Thaqalain was said by the Prophet (SAW) at the place of Khumm. However, according to this tradition the Prophet said it during his pilgrimage, at ‘Arafah.
  3. Zaid al-Anmaati relates it from Ja’far as-Sadiq, while the other trustworthy narrators related it through same Ja’far as-Sadiq and they did not mentioned Ahlul Bayt. Rather,during the farewell pilgrimage the Prophet (SAW) only urged people to stick with Qur’an. This tradition could be read in Sahih Muslim and other book.

    If it is said that Shaykh al-Albani authenticated this, then answer would be: No, Shaykh al-Albani did not authenticate this particular incident; rather he specifically authenticated the wording which was common in both this narration and other narrations. He notified the weakness in Zaid al-Anmaati there. See, As-Saheehah (1761).

The other relation is that which was related by Tabrani [al-Kabeer (3/65)] through Abdul Malik bin Abi Suleiman and Harun bin Sa’d from ‘Atiyyah from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri. This relation is not established due to Atiyyah. And the tradition through Atiyyah has come with the other wording also which doesn’t support this wording. Hence, this has been related through Katheer an-Nawa, A’amash, Fudhail bin Marzooq, Zakariyya and others from Atiyyah with the wording different than the wording related by Abdul Malik bin Abi Suleiman.

Hence, Ya’qoob al-Fasawi relates in “al-Ma’rifah wa at-Tareekh” (1/537) through Fudhail bin Marzooq from Atiyyah al-‘Awfi from Abu Sa’eed with the wording similar to that of Sahih Muslim [This has preceded already].

Fudhail was well famous for his companionship with Atiyyah and he was much well aware of the narrations of Atiyyah than any other. Besides that, he was also supported by al-A’amash from Atiyyah. So, it is established from this that what is established from the hadith of Atiyyah is that which come through Fudhail, and other people related it by meaning and hence came up with different wordings. Wallahu A’alam

Another tradition through Katheer bin Zaid from Muhammad bin Umar bin Ali from his father from Ali (ra). It has been recorded by Ishaq bin Rahuyah in his Musnad, as in “Al-Mutalib Al-‘Aaliyah” (16/142) by Ibn Hajar, likewise by Tahawi in Mushkil al-Aathar (5/13), through Abu ‘Aamir Al-‘Uqdi from Kathir bin Zaid from Muhammad bin ‘Umar bin Ali bin Abi Talib, from his father, from Ali bin Abi Talib….alhadith, which has the wording, “I have left behind among that which if you stick to you shall never go astray….”.

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حضر الشجرة بخم، فخرج آخذا بيد علي، فقال: من كنت مولاه فإن عليا مولاه – أو قال: فإن هذا مولاه – إني قد تركت فيكم ما إن أخذتم به لن تضلوا: كتاب الله وأهل بيتي. ألستم تشهدون أن الله ورسوله أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ وأن الله ورسوله أولياؤكم؟ قالوا: بلى قال: فمن كنت مولاه

Ibn Hajar said, “Its Isnad is Sahih.”

I say: Katheer bin Zaid is disagreed upon. Ibn Hajar himself said in Taqreeb that he was Sadooq who used to commit mistakes. [Taqreeb] Mostly his hadith could be classified as Hasan, when not opposed by other reliable narrators. Imam Dhahabi, after quoting this tradition in disconnected form, said that there was weakness in Katheer. [Risalah Turq hadith “man kuntu maulahu fa ‘Aliyyu maulahu” (32)]

Ibn Jareer records this tradition, as mentioned treatise of al-Dhahabi and al-Bidayah of Ibn Katheer, and Ibn Abi Aasim in As-Sunnah [Zilal Al-Jannah (no.1558)] without relating the part mentioning the tradition of Thaqalain, while ad-Dawlabi related it in “Adh-Dhurriya at-Tahirah” (237) in disconnected form through Muhammad bin Umar bin Ali from Ali.

It was also related by al-Bazzar in his Musnad (864) through Su’ad bin Suleiman from Abu Ishaq from Harith fro Ali. This is weak due to Su’ad bin Suleiman and Harith al-A’awar.

Regarding Su’ad bin Suleiman, Abu Hatim said that he was not strong. Ibn Hibban listed him in ath-Thiqaat. [Tahdheeb (3/401)] It is not known whether he heard this from Harith before Ikhtilat or after it. Harith was weak according to most of the scholars. [Al-Kashif (1/303), Taqreeb (1/175), Tahdheeb (2/126)]

Also, there is disconnection between Abu Ishaq and Harith. Shu’bah said that Abu Ishaq did not hear from Harith except for four narrations. Yahya bin Sa’eed used to narrate from Abu Ishaq only those traditions of Harith which he actually heard from him. [Tahdheeb (2/126), Jami’ at-Tahseel (pg.245)] In our case, neither Abu Ishaq mentioned his hearing nor does Yahya al-Qattan narrate this from him.

Another narration, which urges muslims to stick with Ahlul Bayt, is related by al-Fasawi in “al-Ma’rifah wa at-Tareekh” (1/536) from the hadith of Zaid bin Arqam through the route of Jareer from Hasan bin Ubaidullah from Abu adh-Dhuha from Zaid bin Arqam (ra). This narration, with this wording, exists only in the version of al-Fasawi. Al-Hakim (4711) related it through the same Yahya bin Mugheerah without having the wording under consideration. Similarly, Tabarani relates it through Ali bin al-Madeeni and Khalid bin Abdullah al-Wasiti, (both of them) through Jareer. Also, the authentic tradition of Zaid bin Arqam has already been mentioned, which gives detail account of this statement of Prophet (SAW). WAllahu A’alam

Another tradition from Zaid bin Arqam is related in “al-Mustadrak” (4577) through Muhammad bin Salamah bin Kuhail from his father from Abu Tufail from Zaid. The authentic version of the hadeeth of Abu Tufail is coming under the study of the addition “they shall never separate”. Muhammad bin Salamah bin Kuhail was weak. [Lisan al-Meezan (5/183)]

This wording also exists in some version of the hadith of Shareek from Rukain from Qaasim bin Hassaan from Zaid bin Thaabit. [Musnad ‘Abd bin Humaid] This is not present in other version of the hadith of Shareek, narrated in Musnad Ahmad and other books of hadeeth. Shareek was weak.

 

Now, the following points would make the issue clear:

  1. It is known that all these traditions are describing the same statement, and the occasion was one. The Prophet couldn’t have said all of those wordings because that would be useless.
  2. The difference in the wording is due to reason that many people narrated it through meaning. So they narrated the summarized wording instead of exact wording. Prophet [SAW] could have uttered only one of those different wordings. That is the reason there is not a hadith with this wording except there is also other version of same narration exist which aids the version of Sahih Muslim.
  3. The exact wording has been narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh and Ahmad in his Musnad through Zaid bin Arqam, and this is the most authentic Isnad of Hadith Thaqalain. Similarly, the tradition of Atiyyah al-‘Awfi supports this, which was narrated by Fudhail, Atiyyah’s closest student.
  4. Besides that, the version of Muslim is also explicit. It has been narrated in a way which makes us to believe that it has been narrated precisely.
  5. This wording of Sahih Muslim is also supported by the narration of farewell ceremony related by Muslim and other through Ja’far as-Sadiq from al-Baqir from Jabir (ra). If it was necessity for the Ummah to follow Ahlul Bayt then Prophet (SAW) would have made this clear during his farewell speech at Makkah. But rather he commanded to stick with the Qur’an and later on at Khumm he repeated the same thing except that he added the prescription for the Ummah to be careful with Ahlul Bayt.

 

 [3]. Addition of “they shall never separate until they meet me at the fountain”.

This addition is proven in the hadeeth of Zaid bin Arqam. Hence, it was related by al-Fasawi in “al-Ma’rifah” (1/536), at-Tabarani in “al-Kabeer” (5/169)(5/170) and al-Hakim in “al-Mustadrak” (4711) all of them through Hasan bin Ubaidullah from Abu adh-Dhuha Muslim bin Sabeeh from Zaid bin Arqam.

Imam Tirmidhi relates it in his Sunan (3788) through A’mash from Habeeb bin Abi Thabit from Zaid bin Arqam. Its narrators are all reliable but there is some doubt whether Habeeb heard from Zaid or not. Ali bin Madeeni said, “He found Ibn Abbas, and heard from A’isha. He did not hear anyone besides them.” [Jami’ at-Tahseel (pg.158)] Therefore, this is disconnected. However, Nasai narrates it in al-Kubra (8092, 8410) and likewise Hakim (4576) and there they mention Abu Tufayl between Habeeb and Zaid bin Arqam. The statement of Ali bin Madeeni apply here as well, since Abu Tufayl was a Sahabi, but it is least applicable in case of Abu Tufayl because he was among those Sahabah who died after 100AH. Abu Tufail died in 110Ah while Habeeb bin Abi Thaabit died in 119AH. Both of them lived in Kufah. Imam Dhahabi declared this Isnad to be Qawi (strong), in his treatise on the hadith “man kuntu maulahu” (1/66, no.65).

This was reported in the narration of Atiyyah al-‘Awfi from Abu Sa’eed. Imam Ahmad records it in Musnad (11104, 11131, 11211 and 11561) through Atiyyah from Abu Sa’eed. Atiyyah bin Sa’d al-‘Awfi was weak in hadeeth.

This was also recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (21578, 21654) through Shuraik from ar-Rukain from Qasim bin Hassan from Zaid bin Thaabit. Shareek was weak. Qasim bin Hassaan al-‘Aamiri was Majhool al-Haal.

It was also related by At-Tabarani in “al-Kabeer” (3/67) through Zaid bin al-Hasan al-Anmati, he said narrated to us Ma’roof bin Kharboodh from Abu Tufayl from Hudhaifa bin Usaid al-Ghifari. Zaid bin Hasan al-Anmati was weak as already preceded.

[4]. Wording of “Khaleefatayn” instead of “Thaqalain”.

This word comes in the tradition of Shareek from Rukain from Qasim bin Hassaan from Zaid bin Thaabit. It was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah in “al-Musannaf” (31679), Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (21578, 21654) and others.

Shareek was weak, especially when opposes others. [Taqreeb (1/417)] And there is dispute regarding Qaasim bin Hassaan. Dhahabi quotes from Bukhari that his hadith is Munkar and he was not known. Ibn Hibban listed him among Thiqaat, like he does with Majhool al-Haal narrators. Ibn Shaheen said that Ahmad bin Saleh al-Misri said that he was Thiqah. While Abul Hasan Ibn al-Qattan said he was not known. WAllahu A’alam [Meezan (3/369), Tahdheeb (8/279)]

The word “Khaleefah” here doesn’t indicate the successor of Prophet (SAW) in any way. Qur’an cannot be a successor of the Prophet (SAW) for it was in authority even during the lifetime of the Prophet (SAW). In fact, the Messenger of Allah (SAW) himself followed the Qur’an. Khaleefa is simply something which has been left behind. WAllahu A’alam

[5]. Addition of “So be careful how you deal with these two”

This addition comes under the hadith of A’mash from Habeeb bin Abi Thabit [from Abu Tufail] from Zaid bin Arqam. This Isnad has been discussed under the addition of “they shall never separate…” so look there.

This is the only Isnad, according to my knowledge, which contain this wording and it is authentic, Insha Allah. Wallahu A’alam

Verse of Mubahilah and Shi’i contentions related to it

June 6, 2011 3 comments

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

61. And whoso disputeth with thee concerning him, after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, say (unto him): Come! We will summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, then we will pray humbly (to our Lord) and (solemnly) invoke the curse of Allah upon those who lie. [Surah Aale ‘Imran, verse 61]

 

Argument from the verse

This is one of the evidences which shia give to prove the Imamah of Ali bin Abi Talib (ra) after the Messenger of Allah (saw). Their argument is that, since the word “your sons” refer to Hasan and Husain, while “your women” refer to Fatima, therefore “yourselves” must be referring to Ali bin Abu Talib, and that is because the Prophet (pbuh), during Mubahila, came up only with these personalities and no one else[1].

They further argue that, since Allah calls Ali the “nafs” of the Messenger of Allah, (pbuh), therefore he must be similar to Prophet (pbuh) in each and every speciality except that which has been told[2].

The argument is as weak as the house of spider, as you will see soon.

 

Firstly, the word used for “yourselves” is “anfusana” which is a plural form. This indicates that there were more than one who were worthy to be called as the “self of the Messenger of Allah (s)”. And the Prophet(s) coming up with only Ali in reference to “anfusana” (yourselves) doesn’t falsify its implication for others. Take for example the verse “And [as for] those who put away their wives by likening their backs to the backs of their mothers” (58:3). Here, the verse uses plural form even though the cause for its revelation was a single person. But still the implication is not limited to that person only and that is why Allah (swt) used the plural form. This refutes the contention of At-Tabtaba’i, the shi’a author of “Tafseer Al-Meezan”, who took this verse of Zihaar, present in Surah Al-Mujadilah (58:3), as a proof to claim that the word “anfusana”, although plural, is restricted to Ali bin Abi Talib (ra). He also took this evidence from “Allah has certainly heard the saying of those who said: Surely Allah is poor and we are rich” (3:181) and “And they ask you as to what they should spend” (2:219).

Interestingly all these verses are very strong evidences against what he was trying to prove, as in the case of verses of Zihar. As for the verse of Ale ‘Imran “Allah has certainly heard the saying of those…”, than this was revealed for the Jews, and its implication applied to a group of Jews who held such a view. This ugly statement was attributed to a group of Jews by Ibn Abbas, Hasan Al-Basari and Qatadah as reported by Tabari (7/443) and Ibn Abi Hatim[3]. As for the argument of Shi’i At-Tabtaba’i then he probably concluded it from the report of Ibn Ishaq through Ibn Abbas which was recorded by Tabari (7/441-442) and Ibn Hisham in his “Seerah”, according to which the statement was said by Finhaas who was a Jewish scholar, and he said it during a Majlis of Jewish people. Ibn Ishaq narrates it from Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad the mawla of Zaid bin Thaabit, and he was not known. But this same Tafsir has come from Ikramah and As-Suddi. But as said before, just because the cause of of the revelation was one person or Prophet (S) was seen applying it to one person, doesn’t mean its implication restricted to that single person, this is quite obvious in light of several verses of Ahkam which were revealed because of a single person but it applies to others also[4]. The above verse was revealed for Finhaas, but it applies to all those Jews who agreed with him and this include the Jews who were sitting in his Majlis. Shaykhul Islam has excellent speech on this matter of “limitation of the verse to its cause of revelation” in his Muqaddima Usul At-Tafseer which is in his “Majmoo’ Al-Fatawa” (13/338-340). The same answer goes for the verse 219 of Surah Al-Baqarah. In conclusion, the argument of At-Tabtaba’i has nothing in it to change the plural into singular.

In our case here, the verse used anfusana, which is plural, indicates that there were others who could be called “nafs” of Rasulullah (S). As for why Prophet (s) did not come with others, then we come to it later on.

 

Secondly, the use of “anfusana” doesn’t necessitate equality or even similarity. Allah (SWT) states “why did not the believing men and believing women, when they heard it, think well of their own selves (anfusahum)” [24:12], “therefore turn to your Creator [penitently], so kill your people [anfusakum i.e. yourselves]” [2:54] that doesn’t mean those who worshipped were like those who did not. “and do not kill your people [yourselves i.e. anfusakum]” [4:29]. “and do not find fault with your own people [anfusakum]” [49:11]. Refer to “Minhaj As-Sunnah” (7/87-89).

 

Similarly, the statement of Prophet (S) to Ali (ra) “you are from me, and I am from you” [Sahih Bukhari], and his (SAW) statement regarding Julaibib (ra) “he is from me, and I am from him” [Sahih Muslim], and his statements regarding Ash’aris “they are from me, and I am from them” [Sahih Muslim]. All these statements do not indicate that Ali, Julaibib or Ash’ari brothers were equal to Prophet (S) in quality, except for the Prophethood.

Allah (SWT) mention a statement of Ibrahim (AS) in his Book:

“My Lord! surely they have led many men astray; then whoever follows me, he

is surely of me”. [Surah Ibrahim, verse 36]

No person with intelligence would conclude from the above verse that those who followed Ibrahim (pbuh) were similar to him in all aspects except Prophethood. Likewise, no one can claim that the followers of Taloot, who did not drink from the river, were like him in characteristics because of his (Taloot’s) statement “whoever then drinks from it, he is not of me, and whoever does not taste of it, he is surely of me” [Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 249].

Likewise Shia Muhaddith Al-Kulaini relates (2/170, Kitab Al-Eeman wa Al-Kufr) a narration, which is Hasan as per the verdict of Al-Majlisi, through Imam Ja’af As-Sadiq in which he said regarding relation of Muslims with each other, “he is from you, and you are from him”.

 

 

Now the question arises as to why did not the Messenger of Allah came up with other people like Abu Bakr and Umar, and his other daughters.

 

Shaikh Al-Islam states:

“the reason that (only) these were invited because the command for each group was to call for their sons, women and their self from among their closest relatives. So everyone of them should call for their sons, women and the closest men to their lineage. And these were the closest to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in their lineage, even though there were those who were more superior to them near him (pbuh). So the command was not to call for the superior people from them because requirement for each of them was to call for their special relatives. That is because the fear a person have for them and mercy which he have for his near relatives, and that is why they were specialized in the incident of Al-Kisa and supplication (during that incident). The Mubahila is based on justice, hence they (the Christians) were also required to come with their closest relatives to their Nasab, and they have feared for them which they do not have for other (non-relatives). And that was the reason they quit from the Mubahila as they knew that he (pbuh) was on truth so if had done mubahila its curse would fall on them and their family. In fact many a times a person have fear for his child which he does not have for himself.” [Al-Minhaj (5/23-24)]

 

As for why the Prophet (pbuh) did not come with his other daughters then this is because of the fact that they were not alive during the incident.

And reason that he didn’t come with his wives was because the fact that a person, normally, have much more love for his children as compared to his wives. So if the Prophet would have come with his wives then this would have given the other party a chance for taking the mubahila lightly. For people of that time, putting the life of their wives was much easy as compared to their children and those who were related to them through Nasab. Wallahu a’alam


[1] The incident is proven, as in Sahih Muslim (2404)

[2] See, Muhadhraat fi Al-E’etiqadat (1/25-26) by the Rafidhi Ali Al-Meelani, “Tafdheel Ameer Al-Mu’mineen” (pg.20-23) by Al-Mufeed, “Minhaj Al-Kiramah” [1/70 with Sharh by Al-Meelani] by Al-Hili under “ninth evidence” from Quran for the Imamah of Ali.

[3] Refer to Tafsir Ibn Katheer (2/155)

[4] For example, Ayah of Az-Zihar, which has already been mentioned, Ayah of Li’aan, Al-Kalalah etc were revealed for single person but applied to any other muslim having similar condition described in the verses.

Hadith: My Ahlul Bayt are like Ark of Noah

July 22, 2010 11 comments
“Behold! My Ahlul-Bayt are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever embarked in it was SAVED, and whoever turned away from it was PERISHED.”

It has several chains going back to several companions. Reported as a hadith from Abu Dharr, Ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Zubair, Abu Sa’eed and Anas bin Malik.

Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari

[1] Tradition through Abu Ishaq As-Sabee’ee from Hanash Al-Kinani from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari:

This has come through following routes from Abu Ishaq from Hanash Al-Kinani from Abu Dharr:

Related by Abu Bakr Al-Qatee’ee in “Ziyadaat Fadha’il As-Sahaba” (1402), Abu Abdullah Al-Hakim in his “Al-Mustadrak” (2/373 & 3/163), both through Mufaddhal bin Saleh. from Abu Ishaq from Hanash Al-Kinani from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari.

Hakim declared it authentic on the condition of Muslim. Dhahabi rejected it and said, “Mufaddhal bin Saleh is ‘Waah’” and in another place he said, “Mufadhhal, only Tirmidhi has narrated from him (among six books) and they (scholars) declared him weak”.

Imam Bukhari and Abu Hatim declared him ‘Munkirul Hadith’. Imam Tirmidhi said, “he was not a Hafiz according scholars of Hadith”. [See “Tahdheeb At-Tahdheeb” (10/243)]

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Tabrani in “Al-Kabeer” (3/45), “As-Sagheer” (1/240) and in “Al-Awsat” (4/9), through Husain bin Ahmed bin Mansur Sajjadah Al-Baghdadi from Abdullah bin Daahir from Abdullah bin Abdul Quddus from A’amash from Abu Ishaq from Hanash bin Al-Mu’tamir from Abu Dharr, with the additional statement.. “My Ahlul-Bayt are like the gate of Hitta (a non Arabic word, see Quran 2:58) for Children of Israel”

I am unable to find information on “Husain bin Ahmed bin Mansur Sajjadah Al-Baghdadi”.

Regarding Abdullah bin Daahir, Ahmed and Yahya said that he was nothing (in the field of hadith). `Uqailee said ‘Rafidhi khabeeth’. [‘Al-Meezan’ (2/417), ‘Lisaan Al-Meezan’ (3/282)]

Regarding Abdullah bin Abdul Quddoos, Dhahabi said, “Kufi Rafidhi”. Yahya ibn Mu’een said ‘he is nothing. Rafidhi Khabeeth’. Nasai and others said about him that he was not a trustworthy narrator. Daar Qutni said that he was weak. [See “Al-Meezan” (2/257)]

There is some Kalaam about Hanash bin Al-Mu’tamir, which will be discussed later on. Insha Allah.

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Reported by Al-Ajurri in “Ash-Sharee’ah” (3/347), from Abbaad bin Ya’qoob, from Amr bin Thaabit from Abu Ishaq from Hanash from Abu Dharr…alhadith.

In this chain Abbad bin Ya’qoob was Rafidhi, although fair in hadith and Bukhari narrated his reports in support with others. Abu Hatim said: Shaykh, Thiqah. Ibn Khuzaima said (while narrating a hadith): Narrated to us trustworthy in his narrations, and accused in his religion. Khatib said: Ibn Khuzaima later on stopped narrating from him. Ibn Adi said: He has narrated Ahadith in merits which were rejected on him.

He used to insult Salaf and Sahaba and was very extremist shi’a. Ibn Hibban said: “He died in 250 Hijri. He was a caller to the Rafidhism, and with that he would narrate Munkar narrations from famous narrators.” Daar Qutni said, “he was a shi’a, Sadooq (truthful)”. Ibrahim bin Abu Bakr bin Abi Shaybah said: If there had not been two shia, there would not been any authentic narrations in support of shi’ism. They were Abbad bin Ya’qoob and Ibrahim ibn Muhammad bin Maymoon. [Al-Meezan (2/379), Tahdheeb (5/95), Al-Majrooheen by Ibn Hibban (2/172)]

Abu Dawud said, ‘he was Rafidhi Khabeeth’. Nasa’i said, ‘Matrook in hadith’. Ibn Hibban said, ‘he used to narrate fabrications’. Al-`Ijli said, ‘he was very extreme in tashayyu’ (shi’a belief) and was very weak in hadith.’ [“Tahdheeb” (8/10)]

In conclusion Abbad bin Ya’qoob was ‘Sadooq, Rafidhi’, whose narrations should be looked upon. WAllahu A’lam

The sanad also contain ‘Amr bin Thabit Al-Bakri Abu Muhammad. Ibn Mu’een said, “he was not trustworthy (thiqah)”. In another report Ibn Mu’een said that he was weak. Abu Zur’ah said, ‘weak in hadith’. Similarly Abu Hatim said, and added, ‘his hadith should be written. He was extreme in his view and shi’ism’. Bukhari said, ‘he was not strong in hadith’. [Al-Meezan (3/249)]

At another place in similar tradition Abu Ishaq is changed to Simak bin Harb. That mistake was probably from Amr bin Thabit. Tabarani reported in “Al-Awsat” (5/354), through Muhammad ibn Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah from `Ali bin Hakeem Al-Awdi from `Amr bin Thabit from Simak bin Harb from Hanash bin Mu`tamir from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari.

——————-

Reported by Tabarani in “Al-Awsat” (5/306, h.5390), through Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Sawadah from Amr bin Abdul Ghaffaar Al-Fuqaimi from Hasan bin Amr Al-Fuqaimi from Abu Ishaq, from Hanash, from Abu Dharr…alhadith.

Tabarani said, “No one narrates this hadith from Hasan bin Amr Al-Fuqaimi except Amr bin Abdul Ghaffar”.

Amr bin Abdul Ghaffar was Matrook. Abu Hatim: Matrook Ul-Hadith. Ibn Adi said: He was accused of fabricating narrations. Ali bin Al-Madeeni said: I left him because of his rafdh. Al-Uqaili said: Munkarul Hadith. [Al-Meezan 3/273]

As for Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Sawadah, then Daar Qutni said: his narrations are to be taken for support only, not for proof. Khatib said: I have only seen fair hadith from him.

Common defects in the chain:

All the above narration come through the common narrators, Abu Ishaq from Hanash Al-Kinani from Abu Dharr. Keeping this in mind let us analyze this link.

1). Abu Ishaq As-Sabee’ee, although a Thiqah narrator, was a Mudallis who used to do Tadlees through weak narrators. Hafiz Ibn Hajar listed him among the third category of Mudalliseen [Tabaqat Al-Mudalliseen (1/42)], which according to him is the category of those mudallis narrators who did Tadlis through weak narrators, although there is disagreement regarding acceptance or rejection of their narration with ‘an’ana.

In a version of this same hadith, Abu Ishaq narrates it through an unknown person from Hanash bin Al-Mu’tamir. Al-Fasawi records in his “Al-Ma’rifah wa At-Tarikh” with a sanad much better than above chains, it is mention there:

حدثنا عبيد الله عن إسرائيل عن أبي إسحق عن رجل حدثه عن حنش قال: رأيت أبا ذر آخذاً بحلقة باب الكعبة وهو يقول: يا أيها الناس أنا أبو ذر فمن عرفني ألا وأنا أبو ذر الغفاري لا أحدثكم إلا ما سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: سمعت وهو يقول: أيها الناس إني قد تركت فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله عز وجل وعترتي أهل بيتي، وأحدهما أفضل من الآخر كتاب الله عز وجل، ولن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض وإن مثلهما كمثل سفينة نوح من ركبها نجا، ومن تركها غرق

“(Al-Fasawi said:) Narrated to us Ubaydullah from Isra’eel from Abu Ishaq from a person who narrated to him from Hanash à Abu Dharr…..alhadith”

As it is quite clear that there is an unnamed mubhan narrator between Abu Ishaq and Hanash. And this report should be preferred over other Isnad because Isra’eel bin Yunus in the sanad was a grandson of Abu Ishaq As-Sabee’ee, also he was from the narrator of Kutub Sitta hence thiqah, and Ahmed preferred him over other in in Ahadith of Abu Ishaq. Abu Hatim, Yahya bin Mu’een and others also said that Isra’eel was the most aware of Abu Ishaq’s narrations. [See “Tahdheeb” (1/229)]

And Imam Daar Qutni preferred this sanad over other, as it is mention in “Ilal Daar Qutni” (6/236, q.1098).

So this make the hadith to be weak with all of its chains.

2). Hanash bin Al-Mu’tamir has some weakness in him.

Abu Hatim said, Hanash bin Al-Mu’tamir is Saleh according to me, I don’t see scholars taking him as proof. Abu Dawud said: Thiqah. Bukhari said: They (scholars) used to criticize his narrations. Nasai said: He was not strong. Ibn Hibban said:He is not to be taken as proof. Al-‘Ijli said: he was Thiqah. Abu Ahmed Al-Hakim said: He was not good according to scholars. Al-‘Uqaili, As-Saji, Ibn Jarood, Abu Arab Al-Saqli they all listed him amongst weak narrators. [Tahdheeb At-Tahdheeb (3/51)]

Ibn Hajar said: Sadooq (truthful) but he had Awham (confusion in narrations) and he also narrates from whom he didn’t hear (i.e. Mursal) [Taqreeb (1582)]

All these factors prove that there is no authentic chain for this. Besides all these, it is also doubtful whether Hanash heard it from Abu Dharr or not. That is because Hanash died in 90 AH or around it as per the statement of As-Safdi in “Al-Waafi”, and if that is true then it is difficult that this Kufi narrator could have heard this from Abu Dharr who died around 33AH or before it during the caliphate of Uthman, near Madina at a place called Ar-Rabdhah. And Hanash saying ‘I heard Abu Dharr’ is not something solid against what was said, because weak narrators many a times confused regarding narrators. WAllahu A’alam

Other Isnad of the hadith from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari:

Related by Tabarani in “Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer” (3/45, h.2636), Al-Fasawi in “Al-Ma’rifa wat Tareekh” (1/294, Daarul Kutub Al-‘Ilmi Beirut), through Hasan bin Abi Ja’far from Ali bin Zaid from Sa’eed bin Musayyib from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari.

Hasan bin Abi Ja’far was weak. He has been declared weak by Ahmed, Ibn Mu’een, Nasa’I, Ibn Madeeni etc. Bukhari said, “Munkirul Hadith”. Ibn Adi said: He, according to me, did not intentionally lie. [See, “Meezan Al-E’itedal” by Dhahabi (1/482) Daarul Ma’rifa Beirut]

Ibn Al-Jawzi said that Hasan bin Abi Ja’far was nothing, he mentioned that Nasai declared him “Matrook Al-Hadith”, and Sa’di called him “Waahiyul Hadith”. [Al-‘Ilal Al-Mutanahiyah (1/106)]

Secondly, Ali bin Zaid Al-Jid’an is also weak, as said by Ahmed, Ibn Mu’een. Abu Hatim and Bukhari said, “He is not to be depended upon.” Daar Qutni said, “There is weakness (layyin) in him” [See “Al-Meezan” (3/127-129)]

All these weakness shows that the report is Munkar as no one narrates this narration from Sa’eed bin Al-Musayyib except Ali bin Zaid bin Jaid’aan – who was weak – and no one narrates this from Ali bin Zaid except Hasan bin Abi Ja’far – who was also weak – hence as a whole this report is not good for even support.

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Reported by Abu Bakr Al-Ajurri in his book “Ash-Sharee’ah” (3/347, no.1759), through Harun bin Abdullah Al-Bazzaz, who said, narrated to us Sayyar bin Hatim, narrated to us Harun Al-‘Abdi, he said, A Shaykh narrated to me, that he heard from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari….alhadith.

Abu Harun Al-Abdi was Matrook. Nu’aym bin Hammad declared him liar. Ahmed said: He was nothing. Yahya said: He was weak, and didn’t narrate truthfully his narrations. Nasai said: Matrook Al-Hadith. [Al-Meezan (3/173)]

And the Shaykh of Al-Abdi is unknown.

Abu Sa`eed Al-khudri

Reported by Tabarani in “Al-Awsat” (6/85) and in “As-Sagheer” (2/84), through Muhammad bin `Abdul `Aziz bin Rabi`ah Al-Kilabi from his father from Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Hammad Al-Maqree’ from Abu Salamah As-Sa`igh from `Atiyya from Abu Sa`eed Al-Khudri.

Tabrani said, after narrating the hadith: “No one narrates this from Abu Salamah except Ibn Abi Hammad, and from him Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad was alone in narrating this.”

Hafiz Al-Haythami, after mentioning this narration in his book, said: “reported by Tabrani in his Al-Awsat and As-Sagheer. And in it are a group of narrators unknown to me.” [Majma’ Az-Zawa’id (9/94)]

Al-Haythami, probably, was referring to Muhammad bin ‘Abdul `Aziz, his father, Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Hammad and Abu Salama As-Saa`igh. I have not come across any Jarh or T`adeel regarding them. Wallahu A`alam.

As for `Atiyya Al-Awfi, then he was weak, without any doubt. [See, Tahdheeb At-Tahdheeb (7/200), no.414]. Some contemporaries has started spreading doubts regarding his weakness. Insha Allah, we’ll compile a detailed analysis of Atiyya’s status in hadith in future.

Ibn Abbas

Reported by Tabarani in “A-Kabeer” (3/46) and Abu Nu’aim in “Hilayah Al-Awliya” (4/306) both of them through the route of Muslim bin Ibrahim, from Hasan bin Abi Ja’far, from Abu Suhba, from Sa’eed bin Jubayr from Ibn Abbas….alhadith.

And Ibn Adi recorded it in “Al-Kamil” (2/760), as mentioned by Shaykh Sa’d Aal Humaid, from the route of Muslim bin Ibrahim from Hasan bin Abi Ja’far, from Amr bin Malik from Abil Jawza from Ibn Abbas….alhadith.

Hasan bin Abi Ja’far was weak munkirul hadith, as we have already discussed it above. As for Abu Suhba Al-Kufi, then Ibn Hibban mentioned him in his “Ath-Thiqaat”, and more than one narrates from him and no one mention any criticism on him. WAllahu A’lam

Abdullah bin Zubair

Reported by Al-Bazzar, as in “Majma’ Az-Zawaid” (9/168) and “Kashf Al-Astaar” (3/222), through Ibn Abi Maryam who said, narrated to us, Ibn Lahee’ah from Abul Aswad from Amir bin Abdullah bin Zubair, from his father…alhadith.

Keeping in mind that this an odd Isnad of this hadith, and Ibn Lahee’ah and then Al-Bazzar were alone with this narrations, there are two points regarding this:

[1]. In the Isnad of the report Ibn Lahee’ah (Abdullah bin Lahee’ah) was weak with the agreement of scholars as none of the three Abdullah, who were aware of actual narrations of Ibn Lahee’ah, are the narrator of this report. And those three Abdullah were: Abdullah bin Mubarak, Abdullah bin Wahb and Abdullah bin Yazeed Al-Muqree. Besides that, Ibn Lahee’ah is alone in narrating this hadith through this Isnad, as said by Al-Bazzar as in “Kashf Al-Astar”. And him being alone in narrating this hadith with this Isnad is sufficient for the rejection of this, and not to be counted it as supportive proof. This is because, singular narrations (Ifrad) are accepted from those who were Huffaz. There are long discussions with regards to Ibn Lahee’ahs reports, and scholars are divided into following categories with regards to him:

A). Those who consider his reports to be weak, regardless of whomsoever narrates from him.

B). Those who consider his those reports which are narrated by the three Abdullah, to be authentic.

With regards to the second opinion, its further debatable whether it means that there hearing from Ibn Lahee’ah is proven or the hadith with that chain itself is proven. But in any case, the hadith under discussion was not reported by any of the three Abdullah. Hence therefore the Isnad remains munkar, and it can’t be counted as a support for those narrations whose Isnad are not even closer to this.

Ibn Sa’d said: People used to read Ahadith which were not from his narrations, and he did not say anything. (and it was taken as his narration). When it was asked to him, he replied: “What is my sin? They come to me reading narrations from books and then leave. If they had asked me, I would have said that it was not my Hadith”.[Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d]

Abdur-Rahman Ibn Mahdi said: I do not count anything which I heard from among the narrations of Ibn Lahee’ah, except what was narrated by Ibn Mubarak and his likes.

Yahya ibn Mu’een said: He was nothing, regardless of whether his conditions were changed or not.

And in another report Ibn Mu’een said: “He was nothing in all of what he narrates”. Abu Zar’ah was asked regarding those people who heard him earlier, he replied: “Hearing of early and later narrators are equal (in terms of authenticity). However, Ibn Mubarak used to look for his Asl (books etc) and they wrote from it. And all others used to took from Shaykh, and Ibn Lahee’ah didn’t hold (remember) his narrations, and he was from among those who are not to be taken as proof”. Ibn Abi Hatim said: I asked my father, “Is Ibn Lahee’ah to be taken as proof when Ibn Mubarak and Ibn Wahb narrates from him?” He replied, No. [Al-Jarh wa At-Ta’deel (5/147)]

Imam Ibn Hibban said: “I studied narrations of Ibn Lahee’ah narrated by early narrators and later narrators, so I found Takhleet (confusion, mix up between different narratons) in his later narrations, and many narrations which did not narrated by early narrators. So I back to check it for support, so I found him performing Tadlees from weak narrators from those whom Ibn Lahee’ah considered to be trustworthy. And in that way those fabrication were attributed to him.” [Al-Majrooheen (2/12)]

DaarQutni said in his short book “Ad-Du’afa wa Al-Matrookeen”: Those narrations of Ibn Lahee’ah which came through Ibn Mubarak, Al-Muqree and Ibn Wahb are to be taken for support.

By all these quotes it is evident that Ibn Lahee’ah was himself weak even before his books were burnt, but his early narrations are to be taken as support and later narrations shouldn’t be taken even as support, because of possibility of Tadlees and Takhleet, specially when he came up with with an odd Isnad which was not narrated by anyone like him or better than him. Ibn Lahee’ah was a Mudallis and as we know Ibn Lahee’ah didn’t affirmed his hearing in the tradition under discussion, rather he narrates it with ‘an’ana form. Besides that even those traditions in which he affirmed his hearing are doubtful whether he heard it or not, that is because of his weakness he many a times changed ‘an’ana to haddathna. For more detail on the status of Ibn Lahee’ah refer to the book “An-Naqd Al-Binna li Hadeeth Asmaa” (pg. 41 onwards) by Shaykh Tariq Awadhullah, where the author analyzed all the views regarding Ibn Lahee’ah.

[2]. The second point which is to be looked into, Al-Bazzar was alone in reporting this through the route of Ibn Lahee’ah. Al-Bazzar was although a Hafiz of Hadith, but was also known for his mistakes in Sanad and Matan.

Abu Ahmed Al-Hakim said, “He did mistakes in Sanad and Matan”. Abu Abdullah Al-Hakim said, “I asked Daar Qutni regarding him, to which he replied that he used to make mistakes in Sanad and Matan.” Nasai criticized him, but he was thiqah who made many mistakes. [Meezan Al-E’itedal (1/124)]

Anas bin Malik

Reported by Khatib Baghdadi in his “Tarikh Baghdad” (12/91):

أخبرنا النجار حدثنا أبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن شداد المطرز حدثنا محمد بن محمد بن سليمان الباغندي حدثنا أبو سهيل القطيعي حدثنا حماد بن زيد بمكة وعيسى بن واقد عن أبان بن أبي عياش عن أنس بن مالك قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إنما مثلي ومثل أهل بيتي كسفينه نوح من ركبها نجا ومن تخلف عنها غرق

“’Ubaydullah bin Muhammad An-Najjar à Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Shaddad Al-Mutarriz à Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Baghandi à Abu Suhail Al-Qatee’ee à Hammad bin Zaid & ‘Isa bin Waqid à Aban bin Abi Ayyash à Anas bin Malik………alhadith.” I couldn’t find any Jarh or Ta’deel on Abul Hasan Al-Mutarriz. Khatib listed him in Tarikh Baghdad but did not mention any Jarh or Ta’deel. I couldn’t come across any info regaring Abu Suhail Al-Qatee’ee.

And Aban bin Abi Ayyash was ‘Matrook’. Al-Fallas, Ibn Mu’een, Ahmed bin Hanbal and others declared him ‘matrook’. [Tahdheeb (1/85)] Ibn Hajar said, Matrook. [Taqreeb (1/51)]

Abu Tufayl

Reported by Ad-Dawlabi in “Al-Kuna wa Al-Asma”:

“Rawh bin Al-Farj à Yahya bin Sulaiman Abu Sa’eed Al-Ju’fi à Abdul Karim bin Hilal Al-Ju’fi à Aslam Al-Makki à Abu Tufayl ‘Amir bin Wathilah à Prophet (SAW)…..alhadith.”

In the chain above, both Abdul Karim bin Hilal Al-Ju’fi and Aslam Al-Makki are Majhool. Regarding Abdul Karim bin Hilal Dhahabi said: I am not aware who he is. [Al-Meezan (2/647)]. Aslam Al-Makki was also unknown. No one mention him besides Ibn Hibban who listed him among “Ath-Thiqat” (4/46). No one narrates from Aslam Al-Makki except Abdul Karim bin Hilal Al-Ju’fi (who himself was unknown), and these type of narrators are considered Majhool in correct view, but Ibn Hibban would consider them Thiqah and he was famous for making Tawtheeq of Majhool narrators. In another version of this report Abu Tufayl narrates from Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari, instead of directly from Prophet (SAW). [Al-Mutalib Al-‘Aliyah (16/220)] That is probably a mistake from some narrator. In any case the report is very weak, as said earlier. WAllahu A’alam

Athar of Ali bin Abi Taalib

Besides all the above quoted Marfoo’ narrations, there is a Mawqoof Athar of Ali (R.A.). It was reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah in his “Al-Musannaf” (6/372, h.32115):

Ibn Abi Shayba said: Narrated to us Mu’awiyah bin Hisham who said, narrated us ‘Ammar from A’mash from Minhal from Abdullah bin Al-Haarith from Ali (R.A.), he said, “Our similitude in this Ummah is like the Ark of Noah and the book Al-Hittah in Bani Israel”.

All the narrators of this are reliable. But that is not something specific to the members of household of the Prophet (SAW). Ali did not say, “Ahlul Bayt are like ark of Noah”, he rather said, “our similitude are like ark of Noah”. It means similitude of believers or companions are like ark of Noah. And that is what Quran tells us:

)ومن يشاقق الرسول من بعد ما تبين له الهدى ويتبع غير سبيل المؤمنين نوله ما تولى ونصله جهنم وساءت مصيرا(

And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers – We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination. [Qur’an, An-Nisa, verse 115]

In conclusion, we say, all the isnad of this hadith is based on rejected, unknown or weak narrators, some isnad have single common narrator who was very weak or rejected. Hence we conclude, what was concluded that this hadith, with all its Isnad, is very weak hadith. WAllahu A’lam

Books used while compiling this article:

1. Fadha’il As-Sahabah by Ahmed bin Hanbal, with Ziyadaat of Abdullah bin Ahmed and Abu Bakr Al-Qatee’i [t. Wasiyullah Abbas, Mu’assasah Ar-Risalah], 2. Mustadrak lil Hakim, Daarul Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah. 3. Tahdheeb At-Tahdheeb by Ibn Hajr, Daarul Fikr. 4. Tabarani Al-Kabeer, Hamdi As-Salafi, Maktaba al-Uloom wal Hikam. 5. Tabarani Al-Awsat, Daarul Haramain. 6. Tabarani Al-Sagheer, Rawdh Ad-Daani, Maktabah Al-Islami Beirut. 7. Meezan Al-E’tedal, Daarul Ma’rifah Beirut. 8. Lisan Al-Meezan, Mu’assasat Al-Ilmi. 9. Ash-Sharee’ah, Abu Bakr Al-Aajurri, Mu’assasah Al-Qurtubah. 10. Al-Majrooheen by Ibn Hibban, t. Mahmood Ibrahim Zayad. 11. Tabaqat Al-Mudalliseen by Ibn Hajar, Maktabah Al-Manar 12. Al-Ilal by Daar Qutni, Daar Tayyiba Riyadh. 13. Majma’ Az-Zawa’id by Al-Haythami, Daarul Kutub Al-Ilmiyya Beirut. 14. Kashf Al-Astar by Al-Haythami, Mu’ssasat Ar-Risalah. 15. Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Maktabah Ar-Rushd Riyadh. 16. Al-Matalib Al-‘Aliyah by Ibn Hajar, Daarul Asimah, Daarul Ghaith Saudi. Risalah Ilmiyyah for Jami’ah Imam Muhammad bin Sa’ud.  17. Hilyat Al-Awliya, Daarul Kitab Al-Arabi. 18. Tarikh Baghdad by Khatib Baghdadi, Daarul Kutub Al-Ilmiyya Beirut. 19. Mukhtasar Istadrak Adh-Dhahabi by Ibn Mulaqqin vol.3, Tahqeeq- Sa’d Aal Humayyid, Daarul Aasimah Riyadh. 20. Ahadeeth Shuyukh Ath-Thiqat Qadhi Abi Bakr Al-Ansari, t. Hatim Al-Awni, Daarul Alam al-Fawa’id. etc. 21. Fath Al-Wahhab vol.2 by Ahmed Al-Ghumari, t. Hamdi As-Salafi.

Categories: Hadeeth Tags: , , , , ,

Prophet’s wives were among Ahlul Bayt

December 24, 2009 2 comments

Bismillah
All praises due to Allah.

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

[33:33]


And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Apostle. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.”

According to correct opinion of Ahlus Sunnah scholars, the above verse revealed regarding the wives of the Prophet [SAW] but “Ahlal Bayt” (People of the House) also includes other relatives of the Prophet [saw].

But according to shia view, the red part of the verse revealed specifically for five personalities only, viz., 1. Fatima [ra] 2. Ali [ra] 3. Hasan [ra] [4] Husain [ra] 5. Nine descendents of Husain [ra].

To support their claim they give many arguments. One of their argument is that the red part of the verse uses masculine gender.
However this is a weak argument because these type of gender change are not new for Quran. Quranic arabic is very rich and many times goes against the modern arabic grammer. Just take a simple example, while talking to the wife of Ibrahim [as], angels also used the same masculine gender.

قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
[11:73]
They said: Do you wonder at Allah’s bidding? The mercy of Allah and His blessings are on you, O people of the house, surely He is Praised, Glorious.

As we see here also, the Quran calls the wife of Ibrahim [as] Ahlal Bayt, and that while using the musculine gender in sentence.
The verse say “salamun ‘alaikum ahlal bayt“, and the “kum” is the same term which is used in 33:33, and is a masculine term.

Now let me give an exact example from Hadith where Prophet [saw] used masculine gender while referring to his wives as “Ahlal Bayt”.

It is mention in Sahih Muslim, Book of Marriage..

قال أنس: وشهدت وليمة زينب. فأشبع الناس خبزا ولحما. وكان يبعثني فأدعوا الناس. فلما فرغ قام وتبعته. فتخلف رجلان استأنس بهما الحديث. لم يخرجا. فجعل يمر على نسائه. فيسلم على كل واحدة منهن “سلام عليكم. كيف أنتم يا أهل البيت؟” فيقولون: بخير. يا رسول الله ! كيف وجدت أهلك ؟ فيقول “بخير” فلما فرغ رجع ورجعت معه. فلما بلغ الباب إذا هو بالرجلين قد استأنس بهما الحديث. فلما رأياه قد رجع قاما فخرجا. فوالله ! ما أدري أنا أخبرته أم أنزل عليه الوحي بأنهما قد خرجا. فرجع ورجعت معه. فلما وضع رجله في أسكفة الباب أرخى الحجاب بيني وبينه. وأنزل الله تعالى هذه الآية: {لا تدخلوا بيوت النبي إلا أن يؤذن لكم} [33 /الأحزاب/ الآية 53] الآية http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/D…Doc=1&Rec=3288

Translation of the relevant part is…
Anas said: I also saw the wedding feast of Zainab, and he (the Holy Prophet) served bread and meat to the people, and made them eat to their heart’s content, and he (the Holy Prophet) sent me to call people, and as he was free (from the ceremony) he stood up and I followed him. Two persons were left and they were busy in talking and did not get out (of the apartment). He (the Holy Prophet) then proceeded towards (the apartments of) his wives. He greeted with as-Salamu ‘alaikum to every one of them and said: Members of the household, how are you?? They said: Messenger of Allah, we are in good state ‘How do you find your family? He would say: In good state. http://www.searchtruth.com/book_disp… ber=3328#3328

Here Prophet [saw] greeted his wives as “Assalamu’alaikum. Kaifa antum ya Ahlal Bayt“. The blue parts in the sentence represent masculine gender. Hence, we see Prophet [saw] used the masculine sentence while greeting to his wives. Use of masculine gender in the above hadith doesn’t change the fact that Prophet was referring to his wives not any other members of his family.

The point here is Quranic arabic is very rich and modern arabic grammer doesn’t cover all aspects of it. We can’t just distort the context of Quran, just because it uses the masculine gender while talking to feminine, whose usage is proven for feminine by the way in the arabic books.

Now the following are some narrations which prove without doubt that Wives of the Prophet [saw] were among Ahlal Bayt…

Hazrat Aisha did consider herself among Ahlal Bayt:

35 – (1995) وحدثنا زهير بن حرب وإسحاق بن إبراهيم. كلاهما عن جرير. قال زهير: حدثنا جرير عن منصور، عن إبراهيم. قال:
قلت للأسود: هل سألت أم المؤمنين عما يكره أن ينتبذ فيه؟ قال: نعم. قلت: يا أم المؤمنين! أخبريني عما نهى عنه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن ينتبذ فيه. قالت: نهانا، أهل البيت، أن ننتبذ في الدباء والمزفت http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/D…Doc=1&Rec=4760

Ibrahim reported: I said to Aswad if he had asked the Mother of the Believers (in which utensils) he (the Holy Prophet) disapproved the preparation of Nabidh. He (Aswad) said: Yes. I said: Mother of the Believers, inform me about the utensils in which) Allah’s Apostle forbade to prepare Nabidh. She (Hadrat ‘A’isha) said: He forbade us, the members of his family [Ahlal Bayt], to prepare Nabidh in gourd, or varnished jar. I said to him: Do you remember green pitcher, and pitcher? He said: I narrated to you what I have heard; should I narrate to you which I did not hear? [Sahih Muslim http://www.searchtruth.com/book_disp… ber=4918#4918]

Note- Ahlal Bayt in bracket is by me as a transliteration of what is present in arabic source.

Prophet (pbuh) called Aisha (ra) “Ahli Baytee” (my family) on pulpit, during the incident of Ifk:

فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاستعذر يومئذ من عبد الله بن أبي ابن سلول، فقالت: فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو على المنبر: (يامعشر المسلمين، من يعذرني من رجل قد بلغني أذاه في أهل بيتي، فوالله ما علمت على أهلي إلا خيرا، ولقد ذكروا رجلا ما علمت عليه إلا خيرا، وما كان يدخل على أهلي إلا معي  http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/D…Doc=0&Rec=6951

“…So Allah’s Apostle got up (and addressed) the people an asked for somebody who would take revenge on ‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul then. Allah’s Apostle, while on the pulpit, said, “O Muslims! Who will help me against a man who has hurt me by slandering my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family, and people have blamed a man of whom I know nothing except good, and he never used to visit my family except with me,”
Sahih Bukhari- http://www.searchtruth.com/book_disp…mb er=274#274

Wassalamu’alaikum