Did Ibn Katheer contradict himself? [In defense of Companions of the Prophet PBUH]
All praises due to Allah, and may His peace and blessings be upon Messenger of Allah, his family and companions.
This is in reply to an extremist Rafidhi who consider himself “guided” while he is actually a misguided person. [Rafidhi article] He was known as “toyibonline” on shiachat but he unregistered that id for some unknown reason, but his lies and deceptions are spreaded around shiachat. Now he post at wilayat.net under the id “guided”, but here I’ll refer to him as “misguided” as a title really deserving to him.
This “misguided” thinks that there is a verse in the Qur’an which destroys the sunni concept of “infallibility of Sahaba”. He states:
There is a verse in the Qur’an that destroys the Sunni doctrine of the de facto infallibility of all the Sahabah.
Firstly there is no doctrine of “infallibility of all the Sahaba”, not even of single companion. Sunni simply say that there is not any proof where some companion ever lied while reporting from the beloved Prophet [SAW]. We have companions like Waleed bin Uqbah who is said to have drunk wine, but he never reported any narration which support him or which defends him. Look at Marwan bin Al-Hakam, who was known to commited some crime, he never reported any report which praises him, although he narrated several reports on other topics. Then we have several junior companions who could have narrated some reports which praises them but there is not such thing, except in some cases where the praise actually existed and the meaning did not raise them above their real status. Scholars of Islam analyzed those reports and compared it with other narrations and simple human logic, and finally they concluded that all the companions were truthful while narrating from Prophet [SAW]. Imam Ibn Taymiyyah said:
“None of the companion is known to have attributed a lie, deliberately, to the Messenger of Allah [SAW], even though among them were those who had sins, but in this case Allah saved them from it.” See “Al-Anwar Al-Kashifah” of Allamah Al-Mu’allimi for further on this.
Then the Rafidhi goes on to quote the verse which, according to him, destroys the sunni doctrine of “infallibility of companions”,
[Shakir 48:29] Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those with him are firm of heart against the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves; you will see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, seeking grace from Allah and pleasure; their marks are in their faces because of the effect of prostration; that is their description in the Taurat and their description in the Injeel; like as seed-produce that puts forth its sprout, then strengthens it, so it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the unbelievers on account of them; Allah has promised THOSE AMONG THEM who believe and do good, forgiveness and a great reward.
If all the Sahabah were righteous, Allah would simply have promised ALL of them, rather than only those AMONG them who believed and did righteous deeds.
It is sad that this “misguided” Rafidhi has very less comprehension skills. This verse is a proof against them, not us. Even the highlighted part is in contrast with them. Here Allah [SWT] was promising them that if they remained believers and keep on doing good works, THEN ALLAH [SWT] WILL FORGIVE THEIR SINS AND WILL GRANT THEM GREAT REWARDS.
According to scholars of Tafsir the “min” used in the verse is not “tab’eedhiyah” (partitive) rather it is an indicator of genus, as said by Al-Qurtubi, Ibn Taymiyyah in “Minhaj As-Sunnah”, Ibn Katheer etc in the commentary of this verse. In simple words all those, who were praised in the verse earlier, are included in it. It is like the verse 30 of Surah Al-Hajj where the same “min” has been used for genus.
فاجتنبوا الرجس من الأوثان
“So avoid the uncleanliness from Idols (worship)”. This is how the meaning of the verse looks like, if we consider “min” to be “tab’idhi”. But here, just like 48:29, it implies the genus i.e., avoid all that which belongs to the category (genus) of idols.
Similarly when one says, ثوب من حرير then it simply means “cloth of silk” and not “cloth from silk” and likewise there are several examples. Refer to Tafsir Al-Qurtabi (16/296) and “Minhaj As-Sunnah” (2/19). In short all those who are being described in the verse are included in the verse.
But even if we accept that “min” there is meant for “tab’eedh”, as considered by Shia mufassir At-Tabtabai, then also it doesn’t contradict sunni concept of “infallibility” of all the companions. By that it would mean, Allah has promised forgiveness and rewards only to those who (1). would be a believer (2). and would do righteous deeds. The question arises now: How this “destroys” the sunni concept of de facto “infallibility of Sahaba”? To see the real point one should remember the sunni definition of Sahaba.
Firstly, the term “Sahaba” linguistically includes all those who met him [SAW].
Secondly, in Islamic (or better say Sunni) terminology it means “the one who meet our Prophet (S) while he was a muslim, and he died as muslim” [refer to the books of Mustaleh]. So by this is is clear there are three condition for someone to be included among companions:
- He must have found [including blind] Prophet (S) alive [this exclude all those who saw him in dream].
- And that should be in state of belief [this exclude all those disbelievers and hypocrites who saw him while they were not actually muslim].
- He must have died in the state of Islam [this exclude all those who became apostate later on]
Hence this definition excludes all those who were hypocrites, including all those who tried to kill Prophet [SAW], during his return from Tabuk. So how does it destroy the sunni concept of “infallibity” of Sahaba? But this type of deception isn’t only restricted to this Najis Rafidhi, rather it is the characteristic of most of their scholars.
Then the misguided Rafidhi quotes the statement of Imam Malik, quoted by Ibn Katheer in which he declared, “according to this Ayah, he who is enraged by the Companions is a disbeliever”. And Ibn Katheer, further said that this was the view of several other scholars. Then on, the “misguided” Rafidhi goes on to show the supposed contradiction of Ibn Katheer on this. He quotes narrations talking about the incident when some hypocrites tried to kill the Prophet [SAW] when he was returning from Tabuk but they failed. He consider this to be a fatal contradiction of Ibn Katheer. But we have already provided the proof that Munafiqun aren’t considered among Sahaba at the first place, so I don’t see any need to stretch this more.
The Rafidhi says:
This is a horrible self-Takfir by Ibn Kathir. If you asked Shi’as, they would tell you that they hate ONLY the hypocrites among the Sahabah. Now, does Ibn Kathir love those hypocrites?
Had it been the case there wouldn’t have been such a disagreement among Shia and Sunnis. To sunnis a ‘hypocrite’ (the type which we are discussing here) is the one who is out of the fold of Islam and according a verse of Qur’an he is even worse than a Mushrik. So how can we include them in the category of Sahaba? Yes they are, linguistically, Sahaba but that is not what we mean when we use this term. Just like linguistically, “Hadith” means “a talk” or “new thing”, but when we use this term generally it means “the statement, action, agreement, incident or anything related to Prophet (S)”. Now, another cult known as “Hadith Rejectors” use the verses, where the term “Hadith” has been used in linguistic sense, to discredit authenticity of Hadith. So both these cult possess similar disease.
“Their hearts are all alike” [2:118]
Then this Rafidhi “misguided” made a sub-heading “WHO WERE THOSE TWELVE HYPOCRITES?”. As though after such a long time Hz Hudhaifa [RA] exposed the secret, which was told to him by Prophet [S]. Any sane person would think that he is going to provide a solid evidence to prove his point. But the only thing he did was to quote Ibn Hazm and he totally relied on Ibn Hazm, even though Ibn Hazm said what he said to show the fabrication in the report.
First let me quote the Rafidhi, he said:
WHO WERE THOSE TWELVE HYPOCRITES?
This is where the main issue lies. Ibn Hazm, a recognized Sunni scholar, in his Muhalla 11/224 states:
وأما حديث حذيفة فساقط لأنه من طريق الوليد بن جميع وهو هالك ولا نراه يعلم من وضع الحديث فإنه قد روى أخبارا فيها أن أبا بكر وعمر وعثمان وطلحة وسعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنهم أرادوا قتل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وإلقاءه من العقبة في تبوك وهذا هو الكذب الموضوع
Al-Walid ibn Jami’ narrated many reports, some of which state that Abubakr, Umar, Uthman, Talha, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas, may Allah be pleased with them, attempted to murder the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, by pushing him over from al-Aqabah during Tabuk. This is a fabricated lie.
The sad reality for Sunnis is that Walid is trustworthy, and is one of the narrators of Sahih Muslim! Ibn Ma’in has declared him thiqah while other rijalists like Imam Ahmad and Abu Hatim said there was no problem with him.
So, the reports are authentically transmitted.
Apparently, Sunnis love these very hypocrites who attempted to murder the Holy Prophet (pbuh).
Even more than themselves.
Recently I saw the article of bro Abu Ali Effendi refuting this particular claim of this “misguided” Rafidhi. The brother said:
Hadith would be accepted as saheeh, if it suits to some conditions. Best and shortest definition was given by ibn Salah (rahimuhullah) which said: “A sahih hadith is the one which has a continuous isnad, made up of reporters of trustworthy memory from similar authorities, and which is found to be free from any irregularities (i.e. in the text) or defects (i.e. in the isnad).”
From the very beginning we would ask. Where the chain of this hadith? Ibn Hazm only said that this hadith came from the way of Walid ibn Jamia. He didn’t recorded complete chain in his book. Walid ibn Jamia, that’s Walid ibn Abdullah ibn Jamia al-Koofe az-Zuhre. He narrated from Ibrahim Nakhai, which was born in 50 year h. Let us accept that this Walid died in second age of hijra. Ibn Hazm himself died in 456 h. There are hundred years between ibn Hazm and Walid ibn Jamia. In brief this hadith has no chain, not from Walid till someone who would be witness of that alleged attempt of assassination, neither from Walid till ibn Hazm.
Second. Even if this narration would have connected chain from anyone from companions till ibn Hazm, it still would be rejected. And the reason is very simple, no matter how this dajal guided accused us (in his other article, see screen shot), that we depend only on authenticy of chain, we also looking for text of hadith. And this one would be extremely odd and rejected, because it’s contradicts to mutawater ahadeth regarding Islam and merits of mentioned companions.
There is another point which should be considered. Ibn Hazm was not accusing Al-Waleed bin Jami’ of fabrication, rather he was notifying that Ibn Jami’ was not even aware of the one who fabricated it. This part was not translated by the Rafidhi even though it exists in the same line he quoted.
The gist of the matter is:
- This particular report indicated by Ibn Hazm doesn’t exist in any book, according to my knowledge, and even bigoted Rafidhis couldn’t find this.
- Ibn Hazm knew this type of narration, but in what exact form, we do not know. In any case, he declared this to be a lie and fabrication and cursed the one who fabricated it. (He didn’t accuse Ibn Jami’ of fabricating it).
- It is also possible that Ibn Hazm was so satisfied of the text being lie that he didn’t even bother to do in-depth study of the Isnad. Therefore it is possible that there existed liar or unknown narrators below Ibn Al-Jami’. We cannot be certain unless we see the full Isnad of the narration.
- Regardless of Isnad, the text remain a lie. This is because when a text, even if narrated by good narrators, contradicts established facts through Tawatur (Ma’nawi or Lafzi) then it is rejected unless there remains a way of reconciliation between both. There are abundant reports praising Abu Bakr and Umar, many of them were said by our beloved Prophet (SAW) before his death.